You are here: Home » JOURNAL ARTICLES: Academic Research into Computer Games

JOURNAL ARTICLES: Academic Research into Computer Games

Following are some journal articles representing the results of research conducted over the last twenty years on computer games. This list is by no means exhaustive, so if you have any references to add, please submit them. This list is divided into six categories (although there tends to be a bit of cross-over), relating to:

  • computer games and education,
  • media and cultural studies perspectives on games,
  • medical research into games,
  • gender and computer games,
  • psychological and developmental issues, and
  • studies on computer games and violence


    Bowman, R. F. (1982). A "Pac-Man" theory of motivation: Tactical implications for classroom instruction. Educational Technology, September, 14-16.

    Chaff in, J. D., Maxwell, B. & Thompson, B. (1982). ARC-ED curriculum: The application of video game formats to educational software. Exceptional Children, 49, 173-178.

    Condry, J. & Keith, D. (1983). Educational and recreational uses of computer technology. Computer instruction and video games. Youth & Society, 15, 87-112.

    Greenfield, P. M. and Cocking, R. R. (1994). Effects of interactive entertainment technologies on development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 1-2.

    Hoyles, C, Sutherland, R. & Healy, L. (1991). Children talking in computer environments: New insights into the role of discussion in mathematics learning. In K. Durkin and B. Shire (Eds.), Language in mathematical education. Research and practice. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

    Hughes, M., Breckenridge, A. & Macleod, H. (1987). Children's ideas about computers. In J. C. Rutkowska and C. Crook (Eds.), Computers, cognition and development. Issues for psychology and education. Chichester: Wiley.

    Greenfield, P. M. and Cocking, R. R. (1994). Effects of interactive entertainment technologies on development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 1-2.

    Lepper, M. R. (1985). Microcomputers in education. Motivational and social issues. American Psychologist, 40, 1-18.


    Durkin, K. (1985). Television, sex roles and children. A developmental social psychological account. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

    Flanagan, Mary. "Hyperbodies, Hyperknowledge: Women in Games, Women in Cyberpunk, and Strategies of Resistance." Reload: Rethinking Women + Cyberculture. Cambridge: MIT Press, forthcoming 2001.

    Flanagan, Mary. "=Next Level=Women Digital Activism through Gaming." Innovations-Media, Methods, and Theories. Edited by Andrew Morrison, Gunnar Liestøl & Terje Rasmussen. Cambridge: MIT Press, forthcoming 2001.

    Kaplan, S. & Kaplan, S. (1981). Video games, sex, and sex differences. Social Science, 56, 208-212.

    Lockheed, M. E. (1985). Women, girls, and computers: A first look at the evidence. Sex Roles, 13, 115- 122.

    Sherman, Sharon R. (1997) Perils of the Princess: Gender and Genre in Video Games. Western Folklore 56: 243-258.

    Vered, Karen Orr. (1998) Blue Group Boys Play Incredible Machine, Girls Play Hopscotch: Social Discourse and Gendered Play at the Computer. in Sefton-Green, Julian Digital Diversions: Youth Culture in the Age of Multimedia. London: UCL Press: 43-61.

    Vered, Karen Orr. (1998) "Beyond Barbie: Fashioning a Market in Interactive Games for Girls," Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World, Sherrie Inness, ed. New York: Roman & Littlefield: 169-191.

    Wilder, G., Mackie, D. & Cooper, J. (1985). Gender and computers: Two surveys of computer-related attitudes. Sex Roles, 13, 215-228.

    Yates, Simeon J. and Karen Littleton. Understanding Computer Game Cultures: A situated approach Information, Media & Society 2:4 (1999) 566-83.

    Media and Cultural Studies

    Flanagan, Mary. "Mobile Identities, Digital Stars, and Post-Cinematic Selves." Wide Angle: Issue on Digitality and the Memory of Cinema. 21:3, published spring 2001.

    Flanagan, Mary. "Digital Stars Are Here to Stay." convergence: the journal of research into new media technologies. Eds. Julia Knight + Alexis Weedon, University of Luton. Summer 1999. Print and Internet.

    Lumby, Catherine (1997). “Panic Attacks: Old Fears in a New Media Era.” Media International Australia 85: 40-46.

    Marshall, P. David (1997). “Technophobia: Video Games, Computer Hacks and Cybernetics.” Media International Australia 85: 70-78.

    Myers, David (1991): "Computer Game Semiotics." in: Play and Culture 4: 334-345

    Ndalianis A (1997). "The Film/Computer Game Connection: Shoot 'em Ups, Spectatorship and Gameplay." Popular Culture Review. viii (1): 49-58.

    Ryan, Marie-Laure (1997): "Interactive Drama: Narrativity in a Highly Interactive Environment", in: Modern Fiction Studies 43/3, 677-707

    Skirrow, Gillian (1986) "Hellivision: an analysis of video games", in MacCabe, Colin (ed.) High Theory/Low Culture: Analysing Popular Television and Film. Manchester UP, Manchester.

    Vered, Karen Orr. (1997) "Plotting New Media Frontiers: Myst and Narrative Pleasures," Visual Anthropology Review, Fall 1997: 39-47.

    Wark, Mackenzie (1994). “The Video Game as Emergent Media Form.” Media Information Australia 71: 21-30.


    Brasington, R. (1990). Nintendinitis. New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 1473-1474.

    Graf, W. D., Chatrian, G.E., Glass, S. T. & Knauss, T. A. (1994). Video game-related seizures: A report on 10 patients and a review of the literature. Pediatrics, 93, 551-556.

    Greene, J. S. (1982). Electronic games. Journal of the American Medical Association, 248, 11.

    Gwinup, G., Haw, T. & Elias, A. (1983). Cardiovascular changes in video-game players. Cause for concern? Postgraduate Medicine, 74, 245-248.

    Hart, E. J. (1990). Nintendo epilepsy. New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 20.

    Kolko, D. J. & Rickard-Figueroa, J. L. (1985). Effects of video games on the adverse corollaries of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients: A single-case analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 223-228.

    Segal, K. R. & Dietz, W. H. (1991). Physiologic responses to playing a video game. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 145, 1034-1036.

    Psychology and Development

    Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.

    Barnett, M.A., Vitaglione, C.D., Harper, K.K., Ouackenbush, S.W., Steadman, LA. and Valdez, B.S. (1997) Late adolescents' experiences with and attitudes toward videogames. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1316-1334.

    Blumberg, F.C. (1998). Developmental differences at play: Children's selective attention and performance in video games. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(4), 615-624.

    Blumberg, F. (2000). The effects of children´s goals for learning on video game performance. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(6), 641-653.

    Braun, C. M. J. & Giroux, J. (1989). Arcade video games: Proxemic, cognitive and content analyses. Journal of Leisure Research, 21, 92-105.

    Buckalew, L. W. & Buckalew, P. B. (1983). Behavioral management of exceptional children using video games as reward. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56, 580.

    Chambers, J. H. & Ascione, F. R. (1987). The effects of prosocial and aggressive videogames on children's donating and helping. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148, 499-505.

    Creasey, G. L. & Myers, B. J. (1986). Video games and children: Effects on leisure activities, schoolwork, and peer involvement. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 32, 251-262.

    Egli, E. A. & Meyers, L. S. (1984). The role of video game playing in adolescent life: Is there reason to be concerned? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 309-312.

    Funk, J. B. (1993). Reevaluating the impact of video games. Clinical Pediatrics, 32, 86-90.

    Gibb, G., Bailey, J., Lambirth, T. & Wilson, W. (1983). Personality differences between high and low electronic video game users. Journal of Psychology, 114, 159-165.

    Greenfield, P. M. (1994). Video games as cultural artifacts. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 3-12.

    Greenfield, P. M., Camaioni, L, Ercolani, P., Weiss, L, Lauber, B. A. & Perucchini, P. (1994). Cognitive socialization by computer games in two cultures: Inductive discovery or mastery of an iconic code? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 59-85.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1991). Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence : A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 53-73.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1993). Are computer games bad for children? The Psychologist : Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 6, 401-407.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1994). Computer games and clinical psychology : Issues of concern. Clinical Psychology Forum, 68, 25-28.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1994). Computer games : Harmless or addictive? Education and Health, 12, 28-30.

    Griffiths, M.D. & Dancaster, I. (1995). The effect of Type A personality on physiological arousal while playing computer games. Addictive Behaviors, 20, 543-548.

    Griffiths, M.D. & Hunt, N. (1995). Computer game playing in adolescence : Prevalence and demographic indicators. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 189-193.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1996). Computer game playing in children and adolescents : A review of the literature. In T. Gill (Ed.), Electronic Children : How Children Are Responding To The Information Revolution. pp.41-58. London : National Children's Bureau.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1997). Video games and children's behaviour.In T. Charlton & K. David (Eds.), Elusive Links : Television, Video Games, Cinema and Children's Behaviour. pp.66-93. Gloucester : GCED/Park Publishers.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1997). Video games : The good news. Education and Health, 15, 10-12.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1997). Video games and clinical practice : Issues, uses and treatments. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 639-641.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1997). Computer game playing in early adolescence. Youth and Society, 29, 223-237.

    Griffiths, M.D. & Hunt, N. (1998). Computer game "addiction" in adolescence? A brief report. Psychological Reports, 82, 475-480.

    Griffiths, M.D. (2000). Categorization of videogames : Some comments on 'Children and electronic games' by Funk et al. Psychological Reports, 86, 1247-1248.

    Kappes, B. M. & Thompson, D. L. (1985). Biofeedback vs. video games: effects on impulsivity, locus of control and self-concept with incarcerated juveniles. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 699-706.

    Keepers, G. A. (1990). Pathological preoccupation with video games. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 49-50.

    Klein, M. H. (1984). The bite of Pac-Man. Journal of Psychohistory, 11, 395-401.

    Klimmt, C. (2001). Computer-Game: Understanding interactive entertainment as combination of media and toys. Zeitschrift fuer Medienpsychologie, 13(1), 22-32. (in German with an English abstract).

    Kubey, R. & Larson, R. (1990). The use and experience of the new video media among children and young adolescents. Communication Research, 17, 107 -130.

    Lin, S. & Lepper, M. R. (1987). Correlates of children's usage of video games and computers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 72-93.

    Lundberg, U., B. Rasch and O. Westermark (1991). Physiological Reactivity and Type A Behaviour in Preschool Children: A Longitudinal Study. Behavioral Medicine 17.4: 149-57.

    McClure, R. F. & Mears, F. G. (1984). Video game players: Personality characteristics and demographic variables. Psychological Reports, 55, 271-276.

    McClure, R. F. & Mears, F. G. (1986). Videogame playing and psychopathology. Psychological Reports, 59, 59-62.

    McClurg, P. A. & Chaille, C. (1987). Computer games: Environments for developing spatial cognition? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 3, 95-111.

    Mehrabian, A. & Wixen, W. J. (1986). Preferences for individual video games as a function of their emotional effects on players. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, 3 -15.

    Melancon, J. G. & Thompson, B. (1985). Selected correlates of computer arcade game play. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 1123-1129.

    Mitchell, E. (1985). The dynamics of family interaction around home video games. Marriage and Family Review, 121-135.

    Morlock, H., Yando, T. & Nigolean, K. (1985). Motivation of video game players. Psychological Reports, 57, 247-250.

    Nelson, T. M. & Carlson, D. R. (1985). Determining factors in choice of arcade games and their consequences upon young male players. Journal of Applied social Psychology, 15, 124-139.

    Phillips, C.A., Rolls, S., Rouse, A. & Griffiths, M.D. (1995). Home video game playing in schoolchildren : A study of incidence and pattern of play. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 687-691.

    Pulos, S. & Fisher, S. (1987). Adolescents' interests in computers: The role of attitude and socioeconomic status. Computers in Human Behavior, 3, 29-36.

    Selnow, G. W. (1984). Playing video games: The electronic friend. Journal of Communication, 34, 148-156.

    Sherer, M. (1998). The effect of computerized simulation games on the moral development of junior and senior high-school students. Computers in Human Behavior. 14, 375-386.

    Sherry, J. L. (2001). The effects of violent video games on aggression. A meta-analysis. Human Communication Research, 27(3), 409-431.

    Sneed, C. & Runco, M. A. (1993). The beliefs adults and children hold about television and video games. Journal of Psychology, 126, 273-284.

    Subrahmanyam, K. & Greenfield, P. M. (1994). Effect of video game practice on spatial skills in girls and boys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 13-32.

    Vered, Karen Orr. (2001) "Intermediary Space and Media Competency: Children's Media Play in Out of School Hours Care," Simile: Studies in Media and Information Literacy Education Vol.1 Issue 2 (May) []


    Anderson, C. A. & Ford, C. M. (1987). Affect of the game player: Short-term effects of highly and mildly aggressive video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 390-402.

    Anderson, Craig A. and Karen E. Dill. (2000) Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78: 772-90.

    Anderson, C.A. and Morrow, M. (1995). Competitive aggression without interaction.- Effects of competitive versus cooperative instructions on aggressive behavior in video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1020-1030.

    Ballard, M.E. and Wiest, J.R. (1996). Mortal Kombat (tm):The effects of violent videogame play on males' hostility and cardiovascular responding. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 717-730.

    Buchman, D., & Funk, J. B. (1996). Video and computer games in the '90s: Children report time commitment and game preference. Children Today, 31, 12-15.

    Cacha, F. B. (1983). Glamourizing and legitimizing violence in software: A misuse of the computer. Educational Technology, March, 7-9.

    Cooper, J. & Mackie, D. (1986). Video games and aggression in children. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, 726-744.

    Dill, K. E., & Dill, J. C. (1998). Video game violence: A review of the empirical literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3, 407-428.

    Dominick, J. R. (1984). Videogames, television violence, and aggression in teenagers. Journal of Communication, 34, 136-147.

    Durkin, K. (1990). Turtle trauma: Lay fears, media hype and research findings concerning the effects of superhero cartoons upon young viewers. Proceedings of the Censorship Conference, 1990. Sydney: Office of Film and Literature Classification.

    Fling, S., Smith, L., Rodgriguez, T., Thornton, D., Atkins, E. & Nixon, K. (1992). Video games, aggression, and self-esteem: a survey. Social Behavior and Personality, 20, 39-46.

    Funk, J. B. (1992). Video games: Benign or malignant? Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13, 53-54.

    Funk, J. B. (1993). Reevaluating the impact of video games. Clinical Pediatrics, 32, 86-90.

    Funk, J. B. & Buchman, D. D. (1995). Video game controversies. Pediatric Annals, 24, 91-94.

    Funk, J.B. and Buchman, D.D. (1996). Playing violent video and computer games and adolescent self-concept. Journal of Communication, 46(2), 19-32

    Funk, J.B., Flores, G., Buchman, D.D. and Germann, J.N. (1999). Rating electronic games: Violence is in the eye of the beholder. Youth & Society, 30, 283-312.

    Funk, J.B., Germann, J., & Buchman, D. (1997). Children and electronic games in the United States. Trends in Communication, 2, 111-126.

    Funk, J. B., Elliott, R., Urman, M., Flores, G., Mock, R., (1999). The Attitudes Towards Violence Scale: A measure for adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14, 1123-1136.

    Funk, J. B., Hagan, J., & Schimming, J. (1999). Children and electronic games: A comparison of parent and child perceptions of children's habits and preferences in a United States sample. Psychological Reports, 85, 883-888.

    Goldstein, Jeffrey H. (1998) Immortal Kombat: War Toys and Violent Video Games. in Goldstein Why We Watch: The Attractions of Violent Entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press: 53-68.

    Graybill, D., Kirsch, K. R. & Esselman, E. D. (1985). Effects of playing violent versus nonviolent video games on the aggressive ideation of aggressive and nonaggressive children. Child Study Journal, 15, 199-205.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1997). Video games and aggression. The Psychologist : Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 10, 397-401.

    Griffiths, M.D. (1998). Violent video games and aggression : A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 4, 203-212.

    Griffiths, M.D. (2000). Video game violence and aggression : Comments on 'Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour' by O. Weigman and E.G.M. van Schie. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 147-149.

    Huesmann, L. R. & Miller, L. S. (1994). Long-term effects of repeated exposure to media violence in childhood. In L. R. Huesmann (Ed.) Aggressive behavior. Current perspectives. New York: Plenum.

    Irwin, A.R. and Gross, A.M. (1995). Cognitive tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behavior in young boys. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 337-350.

    Kirsh, SJ. (1998). Seeing the world through mortal kombat-colored glasses.-Violent video games and the development of a short-term hostile attribution bias. Childhood, 5(2). 177-184.

    Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Post-Gorden, J. C. & Rodata, A. R. (1988). Effects of playing videogames on children's aggressive and other behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 454-460.

    Scott, D. (1994). The effect of video games on feelings of aggression. The Journal of Psychology, 129(2), 121-132.

    van Schie, E.G.M. and Wiegman, O. (1997). Children and videogames: Leisure activities, aggression, social integration, and school performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1175-1194.

    Wiegman, O. and van Schie, E.G.M. (1998). Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 367-378.

    Wingrove, J. and Bond, AJ. (1998). Angry reactions to failure on a cooperative computer game: The effect of trait hostility, behavioural inhibition, and behavioural activation. Aggressive behavior, 24, 27-36.

© 2011 Powered By Wordpress, Goodnews Theme By Momizat Team

Scroll to top